Concepts of Deity
As mentioned last month, divinity can often be a touchy subject. Ask ten different people what their definition of the divine is and you are likely to get ten different answers. Is there a God? Is there a Goddess? If so what are they like? Every soul will ask these questions in their lifetime and either accept established doctrine or come to their own conclusions. Spiritual growth is our quest for understanding of that which is greater than ourselves. And while we may arrive at ideas which are universal, the journey is, by necessity, personal.
Wicca is not a religion that promotes dogma or rigid notions on what deity is or is not. Instead it offers a general framework of thought that most Wiccans share, but which is by no means written in stone. Like any pagan path, the Craft embraces diversity. The most fundamental concept is that of immanence. In contrast to the monotheistic faiths, Wiccans do not consider their gods or goddesses to be “out there” somewhere. Rather they are here, in the most immediate sense, and in all things including ourselves. Transcendent deity is the common idea of a powerful figure in the clouds far removed and above humankind. Immanent deity is also powerful, but it is not separate. This is difficult to truly grasp because it is beyond the intellect alone. One analogy is just as all cells of your body are part of you, we are all part of the divine. Or to state it another way, we each have an inner God, Goddess, or Higher Self within us upon which we can call because we are part of the whole. Deity is part of nature, or rather is nature, and as natural beings we are constantly in communion with it if we accept that it is so.
The next basic concept of Wiccan deity is that it is dual: there is a God and a Goddess. There is wide variation and emphasis within the traditions here, but the basic model is that of complementary forces whose combination produces life as we know it. Remembering that these are immanent forces, the God and Goddess are not a superhuman man and woman. We may personify them as such in order to relate to them, but when we speak of Wiccan deities they are first and foremost the most primal of forces in nature. Their interaction is necessary for life, time, and growth. Without the light of the sun or the rain from the sky (the God) the seeds of the earth (the Goddess) would lie dormant and sterile. Though we say God and Goddess there is no gender bias between them. It would be just as accurate to envision deity as twins of the same sex, as many cultures have done, and arrive at the same ideas. The important point is that they are dual in order to express their interaction.
Beyond the two teachings of immanence and duality there may be little in common for divinities between individuals in the Craft. Everyone will attune to these greater forces in their own way and this is as it should be. Many if not most Wiccans find that they connect with the pantheons of a particular culture. The God and Goddess are seen as universal deities that can be personified and related to more easily as a particular god or goddess from ancient myth. For instance, groups with a British Traditional focus may invoke the names of Aradia and Cernunnos. Classical pantheons may choose Diana and Pan, or Demeter and Dionysus. The list is endless. It can also vary with the intent of a particular ritual or magical working. Perhaps I may call on the Goddess as Brigid at the Imbolc sabbat, but as Venus if I am in need of a love spell. All of these gods and goddesses are faces of the larger deity they personify and none are incorrect. Meditation upon the greater forces of God and Goddess is the surest way to find your own connection and know what works for you.
Besides calling on specific deities it is also popular in Wicca to represent the deities according to the archetypes of the Horned God and Triple Goddess. Both of these motifs were common in ancient mythologies as expressions of fertility and immortality, survival and continuation of life being vital preoccupations. The Horned God rules the wild forests and the animals therein. He is the king of all noble beasts who is born at midwinter of the Goddess, grows to maturity to become her partner/consort, and gives his life in the autumn so that life may continue. His cycle follows the solar cycles and the harvest, and he is reborn each year as the child conceived by his union with the Goddess. The Triple Goddess reflects the threefold face of maiden-mother-crone, also reflected in the lunar cycles/phases. The Goddess does not die each year as does the God, but instead shows these aspects in turn as part of the yearly cycle. She is the maiden in spring, the mother after her union with the God going into the summer, and the crone in the waning months of autumn. As he is reborn she is also renewed and they are young together once again in the new year. These patterns are mythological expressions of the cycles of nature that we experience, and their popularity in Wicca is understandable given that they aid us in our attunement with them.
Knowledge of the divine is a goal of any religion. Wicca may acknowledge deity as an immanent duality, but that cannot answer the question of what the experience of divinity is. If my deity is immanent, is it a force outside of me or just a higher part of me? Does calling on the divine entail reaching outside to the universe or within myself? Are their gods/goddesses/angels/fairies/etc in the world or are they my projections? I make no claim to have any answers to these questions as I am still seeking answers myself. And I have a feeling that the answers I arrive at can be different from yours, and we can both be right. To a certain extent it doesn’t really matter. Whether the forces we work with in Wicca are inside us or out in the world, we have the ability to harness them for ours and other’s betterment. In that sense the God and Goddess are most definitely “real” because we can see their effects every day. I like to think of them as forces I may never comprehend, but that I can work with when in need and learn from at all times. My Goddess is not above me in judgment, but I sit at her feet in deference as a student to a wise teacher who would seek to learn great wisdom. May she grant me the understanding that I may prove a worthy pupil.
Journal for the Month of April:
I am gearing up for Beltane at the end this month, and the flowers are finally starting to bloom! This is truly a beautiful time of the year (excepting my allergies), and I am really aiming to stop and smell the roses so to speak. Even in hard times there is so much beauty in nature that we can enjoy for free. Sometimes I find it even more important to see these things when things are tough, because it helps me to remember that there is a greater world out there and maybe my problems aren’t as long-lasting as they feel at the moment.
Anyways, I should have more to report next month, I have a vacation coming up in which I plan to cram as much reading and meditation as possible. I think I’ll throw a little bit of gardening in there too; my herb stocks are quite low! Here’s wishing a merry Beltane to all!
Until next month, blessed be! )O(