The Anglo-Saxon for a hedge rider is hægtessa. In the Elder Edda (Havamal 155), Odin speaks of scanning them sporting aloft in the sky, having left their skins behind on the ridge. “Scanning” here may mean something different from mere seeing. If people in the so-called Dark Ages were able to see such things, we must consider what this means if we are to identify and locate the hedge itself.
One possibility is that such things did occur, however rarely, and some people saw them. They do not occur now because there are no more hedge riders to be seen. Another is that Odin’s ‘scanning’ meant something different from mere seeing, a form of specialized perception such as that employed in ‘scrying’ a crystal.
The modern ‘rationalist’ explanation would be that occasionally someone saw something unusual moving through the sky, and, like modern UFO seekers, interpreted what they saw in accordance with their beliefs. This fails to explain how such beliefs arose initially, since surely a belief in hægtessa or ghost riders in the sky, or whatever, would have to become well-ingrained in order to affect perception.
In the case of many such accounts in folk cultures (that is, cultures which pass on a large body of legend and wisdom orally from generation to generation), recent investigators have noted that it is generally always a second- or third-hand account, and what was seen or occurred happened in the next village, never this one.
The difference between the first two explanations could be illustrated by the hypothetical case of a modern person going back in a time machine to a time and place where the hægtessa were being observed. Would our time traveler see them as well? The consciousness of someone from the late heathen period might be structured differently. To think that the ‘Dark Age’ observer saw the world precisely as we do nowadays, but simply interpreted unusual perceptions according to some archaic belief, is rather crude and simplistic. It is more likely that beliefs, if ultimately responsible for such apperceptions, will have sunk deeply into the consciousness of the perceiver, so that the time traveler would not be able to determine what was being perceived; his or her perceptual equipment would work differently.
The hægtessa, if they exist, may be having somewhat different perceptions themselves. They may have been lying in their skins on the nearby ridge and experiencing a different sort of flight.
I cannot answer these questions, but I can provide a myth or tale that illustrates one way of understanding them:
A Meeting of Sorcerers
The tale-finder had traced the story as far as a small tavern in a remote village. Quaffing his ale, he greeted the other guests and, after a customary exchange of pleasantries, asked if anyone present had heard the story Hob told of a midnight meeting of sorcerers. There was some chuckling, and then a giant of a man sitting in the corner replied that he knew the tale, or knew of it.
“It isn’t much of a story,” he began. “This farmhand Hob, in some stead over the river, was about to head home for the evening when the Mistress of the farm stopped by and asked him if he would wait on some guests who were due to arrive later that night. She said he could enjoy a full supper after they had eaten, and all he had to do was pour water and ale for them, then serve them food when they called for it. For the rest, he was to stay out of the way and not pry, but remain within earshot. He would get extra wages for it. She said that usually she tended them when they came, but she had to go see to a sick sister over the ridge.
“Hob agreed, and along about ten or eleven in the evening they arrived heavily cloaked on horseback. He took their steeds to the barn while they settled themselves comfortably in the straw-strewn main room of the farmhouse. There were about a dozen present, plus one who sat a little apart. He was taller and thinner than the others, and evidently in charge of the meeting.
“Hob brought them well-water and ale, and then retired to an adjoining room, shutting the door between. Being an inquisitive sort of fellow, though, and telling himself he had to listen for their meal-call, he left the door ajar by a little crack and sat close by.
“The room was quiet for a time, then the leader spoke softly. Hob could just see him through the crack.
“ ‘Gentlemen, are you all comfortable?’ There were several grunts of assent. ‘Have you all found your places? Have you removed your heads?’
“When he heard that, Hob felt a chill. He wanted very much to widen the door-crack to see if their heads were off, but did not dare.
“The leader said ‘Very well, now my head is off.’ A great fear fell on Hob as he saw the leader sitting in his place with his head in his hands. His neck was not bloodied, and his voice seemed to be coming from the hole in his shoulders. He couldn’t see the other sorcerers but assumed they looked the same.
“At one point, everyone stood up and began pacing in a circle round the room. Their heads, apparently, were set aside somewhere safe where they would not be kicked or tripped over accidentally. As the pacing continued, the headless sorcerers seemed to rise slightly until they were circling together two or three inches off the ground. Peering through the crack, Hob saw them pass by one at a time, each without a head on his shoulders! At the same time, an enormous buzzing noise started filling the room, and energy throbbed so strongly that it pushed Hob’s door fully closed, without, however making a sound. Hob was deathly afraid the headless sorcerers would discover him spying on them, and take off his head, but they took no notice and, from the sound, apparently continued circling a while longer. Finally they stopped, and it would seem that each resumed his seat, since it grew quiet once again. The throbbing had ceased.
“Hob was afraid they would call for food with their heads off, but presently the leader said ‘Gentlemen, you may now replace your heads and lose your places.’ They then called for him to bring in the food. As soon as he had done so, he withdrew and, not waiting to gather the dishes later, much less eat the leavings of such uncanny creatures, quietly left the farmhouse and tore off across the fields as though the night-hag were after him!”
All the guests roared with laughter, a little nervously, and complimented the giant on his narration. The tale-finder thanked him and bought everyone a round, but secretly he felt disappointed, since he had had the tale in this form before. He thought perhaps he hadn’t gotten any closer to its place of origin.
After a while, he asked the giant where he had heard the story. The narrator answered, somewhat shortly, that it was in general circulation.
“Is this Hob still about?” he asked the room. Someone remarked that he had died in his grandfather’s time, but it was known that he never returned to that farm, not even to collect his wages. He decided the Mistress must be a hægtessa to play hostess to such beings, and he shortly left the district. But before he left, he told his story to a bard, a lore master in the hills this side of the river, who passed it on to his successor, and in this way it got around.
The tale-finder asked where he might find this bard or his current successor, and after some grumbling, especially from the giant, someone gave him directions. He explained then diplomatically that his work involved hunting down the oldest form of such tales. He doubted he would ever hear the story told better than it was told tonight, he added. With that, the giant grinned and everyone relaxed. They drank another round of ale, and then the tale-finder rose and bidding them all good evening, went to his bed in the loft above the tavern.
In the morning he rose early, paid the innkeeper, saddled his horse and rode into the hills. He had no trouble finding the cot of the bard, and by lunchtime was seated across a rude table from him. This was not indeed the man Hob had told, but his second successor. The tale-finder repeated the story as the giant had told it and waited for the bard to make comments.
He said nothing for a while, but smiled and snorted a bit. “Yes,” he said at last, “that is the popular version, but it is not what Hob told old White Hawk. He said that after the leader of the group had told everyone to take his head off, and had said that now his head was off, Hob was surprised to see his head was still there, securely on his shoulders. But you should have surmised this,” he added, raising an eyebrow, “else why would he have bothered to tell the others his head was off? Or why would he have asked them if they had removed their own heads, since with his on he could obviously have seen they were headless?”
He took a bite of bread, shrugged, and added “But of course, really headless sorcerers make a better tale.”
“And the circling?” asked the tale-finder, “the rising into the air?”
The bard smiled wryly. “That is a subtler matter. It is possible they became lighter, and perhaps they even floated a bit in their pacing. I don’t think Hob exaggerated that very much.”
“And what of the strange buzzing that filled the room?”
“That you would have to experience for yourself,” he said. “But I don’t think it was heard with the ears. It was, perhaps, more like a pressure.” He nodded and rose. Lunch and the interview were over.
The tale-finder thanked him for his information and hospitality. He felt more confused than ever, though. As he turned to say good-bye at the door, the bard thought of something else. He brought a bucket of well-water and held it up to the tale-finder’s chest. “It is customary in these parts,” he said, “for us to share a drink of water before parting. But before I dip the ladle, look into the bucket. Tell me what you see.”
The tale-finder looked and saw his weather-worn face looking up at him. “My face , my head,” he said. The bard pulled the bucket away. “And now,” he said, smiling, “where is your head?” The tale-finder felt his forehead and cheeks and said, “Well, here it is, only I can’t see it.”
“Exactly,” the bard answered. But do you usually notice that you can’t see it? If you don’t, you reside in your thoughts. You have lost your place in the room. Do you understand?”
The tale-finder’s mouth fell open. “So that’s it?”
“That’s it.” They shared a farewell drink of water, and the tale-finder went on his way.
*The place the sorcerers found when they took off their heads is the hedge, or a first glimpse of it.